## Histograms in Graphical Representation: 10 Quotes

“The histogram, with its columns of area proportional to number, like the bar graph, is one of the most classical of statistical graphs. Its combination with a fitted bell-shaped curve has been common since the days when the Gaussian curve entered statistics. Yet as a graphical technique it really performs quite poorly. Who is there among us who can look at a histogram-fitted Gaussian combination and tell us, reliably, whether the fit is excellent, neutral, or poor? Who can tell us, when the fit is poor, of what the poorness consists? Yet these are just the sort of questions that a good graphical technique should answer at least approximately.” (John W Tukey, “The Future of Processes of Data Analysis”, 1965)

“There is a technical difference between a bar chart and a histogram in that the number represented is proportional to the length of bar in the former and the area in the latter. This matters if non-uniform binning is used. Bar charts can be used for qualitative or quantitative data, whereas histograms can only be used for quantitative data, as no meaning can be attached to the width of the bins if the data are qualitative.” (Roger J Barlow, “Statistics: A guide to the use of statistical methods in the physical sciences”, 1989)

“Averages, ranges, and histograms all obscure the time-order for the data. If the time-order for the data shows some sort of definite pattern, then the obscuring of this pattern by the use of averages, ranges, or histograms can mislead the user. Since all data occur in time, virtually all data will have a time-order. In some cases this time-order is the essential context which must be preserved in the presentation.” (Donald J Wheeler,” Understanding Variation: The Key to Managing Chaos” 2nd Ed., 2000)

“Use of a histogram should be strictly reserved for continuous numerical data or for data that can be effectively modelled as continuous […]. Unlike bar charts, therefore, the bars of a histogram corresponding to adjacent intervals should not have gaps between them, for obvious reasons.” (Alan Graham, “Developing Thinking in Statistics”, 2006)

“A histogram consists of the outline of bars of equal width and appropriate length next to each other. By connecting the frequency values at the position of the nominal values (the midpoints of the intervals) with straight lines, a frequency polygon is obtained. Attaching classes with frequency zero at either end makes the area (the integral) under the frequency polygon equal to that under the histogram.” (Manfred Drosg, “Dealing with Uncertainties: A Guide to Error Analysis”, 2007)

“Need to consider outliers as they can affect statistics such as means, standard deviations, and correlations. They can either be explained, deleted, or accommodated (using either robust statistics or obtaining additional data to fill-in). Can be detected by methods such as box plots, scatterplots, histograms or frequency distributions.” (Randall E Schumacker & Richard G Lomax, “A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling” 3rd Ed., 2010)

“A histogram for discrete numerical data is a graph of the frequency or relative frequency distribution, and it is similar to the bar chart for categorical data. Each frequency or relative frequency is represented by a rectangle centered over the corresponding value (or range of values) and the area of the rectangle is proportional to the corresponding frequency or relative frequency.” (Roxy Peck et al, “Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis” 4th Ed., 2012)

“Histograms are often mistaken for bar charts but there are important differences. Histograms show distribution through the frequency of quantitative values (y axis) against defined intervals of quantitative values(x axis). By contrast, bar charts facilitate comparison of categorical values. One of the distinguishing features of a histogram is the lack of gaps between the bars […]” (Andy Kirk, “Data Visualization: A successful design process”, 2012)

“Histograms and frequency polygons display a schematic of a numeric variable’s frequency distribution. These plots can show us the center and spread of a distribution, can be used to judge the skewness, kurtosis, and modicity of a distribution, can be used to search for outliers, and can help us make decisions about the symmetry and normality of a distribution.” (Forrest W Young et al, “Visual Statistics: Seeing data with dynamic interactive graphics”, 2016)

“A histogram represents the frequency distribution of the data. Histograms are similar to bar charts but group numbers into ranges. Also, a histogram lets you show the frequency distribution of continuous data. This helps in analyzing the distribution (for example, normal or Gaussian), any outliers present in the data, and skewness.” (Umesh R Hodeghatta & Umesha Nayak, “Business Analytics Using R: A Practical Approach”, 2017)

*More quotes on “Histograms” in Graphical Representation at **sql-troubles.blogspot.com**.*